(Chinese: “Spring and Autumn Annals”) First Chinese chronological history, the traditional history of Lu, as revised by Confucius. One of the Five Classics of Confucianism, it recounts events during the reign of 12 rulers of Lu from 722 BC to just before Confucius's death in 479 BC. The Confucian Dong Zhongshu claimed that the natural phenomena recorded (e.g., drought, eclipse) were intended to warn future rulers of what happens when leaders prove unworthy. Since Confucian scholars were official interpreters of the classics, the book was a means for imposing Confucian ideals. The commentary called Zuo zhuan is significant.

Variants of CHUNQIU

Chunqiu or Ch'un-ch'iu

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