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Nonmetallic chemical element, chemical symbol Cl, atomic number 17. It is a toxic, corrosive, greenish yellow gas (as the diatomic molecule Cl) that severely irritates the eyes and respiratory system (and was used for that purpose as a chemical-warfare agent in World War I). As the chloride ion and in the hypochlorite ion, it has valence 1; in the chlorite, chlorate, and perchlorate ions, it has higher valences. Chlorine and its compounds are important industrial materials with myriad uses in the manufacture of other chlorinated compounds (e.g., PVC, hydrochloric acid, ethylene dichloride, trichloroethylene, PCBs), in water purification (municipal systems, swimming pools), in textile industries, in flame retardants, in special batteries, and in food processing. Sodium chloride (table salt) is by far the most familiar of its compounds. See alsobleach.
This entry comes from Encyclopædia Britannica Concise. For the full entry on chlorine, visit Britannica.com.