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(born Oct. 9, 1757, Versailles, Francedied Nov. 6, 1836, Gorizia, Friuli) King of France (1824–30). Fifth son of the dauphin Louis, and grandson of Louis XV, until 1824 he was known as Charles-Philippe, count d'Artois. During the French Revolution he went into exile and became the leader of the émigré nobility. Returning to France in 1814, he led the ultras during the Bourbon Restoration. On the death of his brother Louis XVIII, Charles became king. His popularity waned as his reign became increasingly reactionary. After the July Revolution he was forced to abdicate in favour of Louis-Philippe. His reign dramatized the failure of the Bourbons to reconcile the tradition of the monarchy by divine right with the democratic spirit produced in the wake of the Revolution.
This entry comes from Encyclopædia Britannica Concise. For the full entry on Charles X, visit Britannica.com.