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Venustiano Carranza, c. 1910.—Archivo Casasola
(born Dec. 29, 1859, Cuatro Ciénegas, Mex.died May 20/21, 1920, Tlaxcalantongo) First president of the post-Porfirio Díaz Mexican Republic (1917–20). The son of a landowner, he was active in politics from 1877. In 1910 he joined the struggle of Francisco Madero against Díaz. A moderate and a nationalist, he favoured political but not social reform. Because he did little to implement the far-reaching reforms called for in the constitution of 1917, his presidency was plagued by social unrest and clashes with the more radical leaders Pancho Villa and Emiliano Zapata as well as by serious financial problems. His nationalism led him to oppose U.S. intervention in Mexican affairs, even when he stood to benefit from it. He is held responsible for Zapata's assassination and was himself murdered while fleeing an armed rebellion. See alsoMexican Revolution.
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