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Region, western Slovenia. It is located northeast of the head of the Adriatic Sea and includes a mountainous area. Its chief town is Ljubljana. It was part of the Roman province of Pannonia in ancient times and was occupied by the Slovenes in the 6th century AD. In the 13th century it became part of the Holy Roman Empire. In 1335 it became a possession of the Austrian Habsburgs, who held it as a duchy until 1849, when it was recognized as an Austrian crown land (1849–1918). After World War I it was divided between Italy and the new Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes (later Yugoslavia); it was incorporated entirely into Yugoslavia by a 1947 treaty. When Yugoslavia was fragmented in the 1990s, Carniola was included in Slovenia.
This entry comes from Encyclopædia Britannica Concise. For the full entry on Carniola, visit Britannica.com.