Italian belltower, originally built beside or attached to a church. The earliest campaniles (7th–10th century) were plain round towers with a few small arched openings near the top; the Leaning Tower of Pisa is an elaborate version of this type. The Venetian form of campanile consisted of a tall, square, slim shaft, frequently tapered, with a belfry at the top, above which rose the spire, sometimes square as in the famous campanile of St. Mark's Basilica (10th–12th century, belfry story 1510). After falling out of favor during the Renaissance, the Venetian type was revived in the 19th century, often in connection with factories, housing, or collegiate buildings.
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