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Process of smoothing and compressing a material (notably paper) during production by passing a continuous sheet through a number of pairs of heated rolls. The rolls in combination are called calenders; they are made of hardened steel or steel covered with fiber. In paper production, they typically exert a pressure of 500 lbs per linear in. (89 kg per cm). Coated papers are calendered to obtain a smooth, glossy finish. Calendering is also widely used in the manufacture of textiles, coated fabrics, and plastic sheeting.
This entry comes from Encyclopædia Britannica Concise. For the full entry on calendering, visit Britannica.com.