(1814–30) In France, the period that began when Napoleon abdicated and the Bourbon monarchs were restored to the throne. The First Restoration occurred when Napoleon fell from power and Louis XVIII became king. Louis's reign was interrupted by Napoleon's return to France (see Hundred Days), but Napoleon was forced to abdicate again, leading to the Second Restoration. The period was marked by a constitutional monarchy of moderate rule (1816–20), followed by a return of the ultras during the reign of Louis's brother, Charles X (1824–30). Reactionary policies revived the opposition liberals and moderates and led to the July Revolution, Charles's abdication, and the end of the Bourbon Restoration.
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