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Semimetallic chemical element, chemical symbol B, atomic number 5. Pure crystalline boron is a black, lustrous, very hard but brittle semiconductor that does not occur naturally. Boron compounds are found widely dispersed as various minerals, including borax and the gemstone tourmaline. The element is used to harden certain steels, among other metallurgical uses, and is also used in semiconductor devices. Its borate compounds, in which it has valence 3, are essential to plant growth and have many uses in soaps, mild antiseptics, and eye ointments. Industrially, they are used as herbicides, fire retardants in fabrics, and catalysts in numerous organic chemical reactions. They are also used in electroplating and glass and ceramic formulations. The exceptional hardness and inertness of certain boron compounds, including boron carbide, aluminum boride, and boron nitride (which has an electronic structure resembling that of diamond), make them useful as abrasives and reinforcing agents, particularly for high-temperature applications.
This entry comes from Encyclopædia Britannica Concise. For the full entry on boron, visit Britannica.com.