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District and ancient republic, eastern central Greece. Bounded by Attica and the Gulf of Corinth, its chief cities were Orchomenus and Thebes. Inhabited by Boeotians, an Aetolian people from Thessaly, it became politically significant after the Boeotian League was formed under Theban leadership c. 600–550 BC. Hostile to Athens, the League revolted against it c. 447 BC. In the Peloponnesian War, Boeotia defeated Athens at Delium in 424 BC. Led by Thebes, it dominated Greece until Thebes was destroyed by Alexander the Greatc. 335 BC.
This entry comes from Encyclopædia Britannica Concise. For the full entry on Boeotia, visit Britannica.com.