Biruni, al- biographical name
(born September 973, Khwarezm, Khorasandied Dec. 13, 1048, Ghazna, Ghaznavid Afg.) Persian scientist and scholar. Sometime after 1017, he went to India, a land of which he wrote an encyclopaedic account. Later he settled at Ghazna in Afghanistan, where he enjoyed the support of the renowned Mahmud of Ghazna and other rulers of the Ghaznavid dynasty. Conversant with many languages, he wrote in Arabic, producing works on mathematics, astronomy, astrology, geography, physics, medicine, history, and chronology. His scientific achievements included accurate calculations of latitude and longitude and explanations of natural springs by the laws of hydrostatics. His best-known works are A History of India and Chronology of Ancient Nations.
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