Barclay de Tolly, Mikhail (Bogdanovich), Prince biographical name
(born Dec. 13, 1761, Pamuskis, Poland-Lithuaniadied May 14, 1818, Insterburg, East Prussia) Russian field marshal prominent in the Napoleonic Wars. A member of a Scottish family that had settled in Livonia, Barclay entered the Russian army in 1786. In 1812 he took command of one of two Russian armies operating against Napoleon. His strategy of avoiding decisive action and retreating into Russia proved unpopular, and he was forced to resign his command. He took part in the invasion of France in 1814, and in 1815 he was commander in chief of the Russian army that invaded France after Napoleon's return from Elba.
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