School of Muslim theology founded by Abu al-Hasan al-Ash'ari in the 10th century. It supported the use of reason and speculative theology (kalam) to defend the faith but was not as extreme in its rationalism as the Mu'tazilah school. Followers attempted to demonstrate the existence and nature of God through rational argument, while affirming the eternal, uncreated nature of the Qur'an. They were accused by the Mu'tazilah of believing in predestination because they claimed the human capacity for action was only acquired at the very moment of action.

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