Works of art accumulated by an individual or institution. Such collections were made in the earliest civilizations; precious objects were stored in temples, tombs, sanctuaries, and palaces. A taste for collecting per se developed in Greece (4th–1st century BC). The great art collections of the world grew out of private collections formed by royalty, aristocracy, and the wealthy. By the 18th century, collectors were donating their holdings to the public and constructing buildings to house them (e.g., the Louvre Museum, Uffizi Gallery). Wealthy industrialists in the U.S. played a prominent role in the 19th–20th century, and an unprecedented flow of masterpieces from Europe soon filled U.S. museums.
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