Arkwright, Sir Richard

Arkwright, Sir Richard

biographical name

(born Dec. 23, 1732, Preston, Lancashire, Eng.—died Aug. 3, 1792, Cromford, Derbyshire) British textile industrialist and inventor. His first spinning machine was patented in 1769 (see Lewis Paul). His water frame (so-called because it operated by waterpower) produced a cotton yarn suitable for warp (see weaving), stronger than thread made on the spinning jenny, which proved suitable only for weft. He introduced all-cotton calico in 1773. He opened several factories equipped with machinery for carrying out the phases of textile manufacturing from carding through spinning (see drawing).

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