System of physical conditioning for increasing the efficiency of the body's intake of oxygen. Aerobic exercises (e.g., running, jogging, swimming, dancing) stimulate heart and lung activity. To produce a benefit, aerobic training must raise the heart rate (pulse) to the exerciser's target level for at least 20 minutes and include at least three sessions a week. The concept of aerobics was pioneered by Kenneth H. Cooper and popularized in his books Aerobics (1968) and The Aerobics Way (1977).

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