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Central treasury of ancient Rome, housed in the Temple of Saturn. During the republic (509–27 BC), two quaestors managed the treasury and the Senate controlled it. All revenues were paid into the aerarium, and approved payments were made from it. Under the principate (27 BC–AD 305) the aerarium lost funds and importance as emperors and magistrates bypassed Senate control and drew directly from the fisci (various private and provincial treasuries). From AD 6 Augustus used taxes to fund the aerarium militare, a public treasury, to reward veterans, and the aerarium Saturni became the treasury of the city of Rome.
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