Historical Islamic state, eastern Africa, southwest of the Gulf of Aden, with its capital at Harer (now in Ethiopia). Its rivalry with Christian Ethiopia began in the 14th century. In the early 16th century Adal launched a series of attacks. By 1533 Adal, now led by Ahmed Grañ, succeeded in gaining control of most of central Ethiopia. Grañ was killed in battle in 1543, and the Oromo invasions of the later 16th century ended Adal's power.
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